Tuesday, November 30, 2010

hujan yg turun bagai kan mutiara.

w
ow...for the end of this month, hujan turun tiap2 mlm..
tp time siang panas membahang...Like A New Sun Born In Earth..
huh..tp sekali ujan..pergh Becok Belopok Jgk La diwat nyer..
ANYWAYS JUST TO REMIND u all cpt2 ler beli sadin beras gula yerk..
bah pantai timur nak dtg la tu...nie die bg salam dulu..skali die masok..hahaha
ko rg pon tau kan pe
azab nyer...tp jgn kite lupe yang smue nie nikmat dan ujian yang ALLAH berikan...
baik buruk dtg dr-NYA menguji sekalian umat manusia..hanya yg beriman akan menang..kalah??
masih terbuka pintu taubat bg sesiapa yang mengaku umat MUHAMMAD  S.A.W...wallahualam...

Monday, November 29, 2010

chelsea seri

skit nyer pjg aq dok ulas pre game tp last2 seri..
itu pon 1-1..WTF!

Friday, November 26, 2010

PRE-MATCH BRIEFING: NEWCASTLE UNITED V CHELSEA

Chelsea head to the snowy north-east on Sunday, aiming to show the midweek Champions League win was the start of an upturn in fortunes. Club historian Rick Glanvill and club statistician Paul Dutton begin the build-up...

TALKING POINTS
The champions visit Tyneside for the first time in 18 months this weekend, and it will be the first time we have played away to a team that came up from the Championship in May.
The last time we lost to a recently elevated side was way back in April 2001 at Stamford Bridge, when Charlton defeated us with the only goal of the game.

KEY STATChelsea are unbeaten in our last 57 games against newly promoted teams, with 50 wins and seven draws.

After the gloom of back-to-back league defeats, the Chelsea of 2010 quietly achieved the club's best ever start to a Champions League campaign by completing five successive wins on Tuesday. Marseille in two weeks' time is now a match than can be played and enjoyed without pressure.
Only four teams have ever won all six games in a Champions League group stage: AC Milan in 1992/93, Paris Saint-Germain 1994/95, Spartak Moscow 1995/96 and Barcelona 2002/03.
None of those went on to win the trophy, though the Milan of Costacurta, Baresi, Rijkaard, Van Basten et al were runners-up - to our final opponents in Group F, Olympique Marseille.
Whose bright idea was this yellow winter ball? The Premier League leaders were doing perfectly well up to the end of October with the proper blue and white one. Okay, so it has been running for some seasons now between November and February.
Birmingham v Chelsea

And maybe the snow or sleet predicted makes a dazzling yellow ball more appropriate. But since Blackburn on 30 October (not even November!) our attacking players' aim appears to have been blurred by this gaudy sphere. On Tuesday the problem seemed to have spread to the Champions League ball too.
Chelsea managed almost 60 shots on goal in the games away to Birmingham and at home to Žilina, of which only nine were on target in each game and just two actually hit the back of the net. The 32 against Brum was the highest recorded by a side this season in the Premier League.
Both games presented themselves as the type in which Frank Lampard often pops up as the match-winner, with a long-range shot, late run into the box, or incisive touch.
It is not simply absence making the heart grow fonder: Frank, who hasn't played since late August, again had one of the highest ratios of shots being on target in the present Chelsea squad, let alone midfielders.
The loss of his influence throughout the team has also prompted a tactical rethink from Carlo Ancelotti. During the last two matches the Italian has switched to two holding midfielders and two wingers in a 4-2-3-1/4-4-2 system that has provoked a marked upturn in performance.
It came close to working the oracle at St Andrew's, but no breakthrough past in-form Ben Foster would come.
However Žilina became the second team in six games to take the lead and succumb to the Blues - the other being Blackburn at the end of October.
Frank Lampard was on target the last time we played on Tyneside in April 2009, a 2-0 win with Florent Malouda also on target from his subtle assist.
Alan Shearer was the emergency manager back then, but there was no great passion in the relegation-haunted stadium. It will be a more fervent atmosphere this weekend despite the early kick-off time and the Geordies having lost or drawn four of their last five home games.
By the way, the FA Cup third round draw takes place on at 6pm on Sunday evening, live on ITV1. Chelsea will be ball number 11.
Two sides can leapfrog leaders Chelsea on Saturday. Arsenal, though, have drawn three of their last five visits to Villa Park. Blackburn last avoided defeat at Old Trafford five years ago. Stoke have a decent track record against Man City over the last few years, while Liverpool-Tottenham is often a fixture that favours the hosts.

Barclays Premier League fixtures
SaturdayAston Villa v Arsenal 12.45pm - Sky Sports
Bolton v Blackpool 3pm
Everton v West Brom 3pm
Fulham v Birmingham 3pm
Man Utd v Blackburn 3pm
Stoke v Man City 3pm
West Ham v Wigan 3pm
Wolverhampton v Sunderland 3pm
SundayNewcastle v Chelsea 1.30pm - Sky Sports
Tottenham v Liverpool 4pm - Sky Sports

Barclays Premier League table
Top
Pld Gd Pts
1 Chelsea 14 19 28
2 Man United 14 13 28
3 Arsenal 14 13 26
4 Man City 14 8 25
5 Bolton 14 6 22
6 Tottenham 14 2 22
7 Sunderland 14 2 20
8 Stoke 14 0 19
9 Liverpool 14 -1 19
10 Newcastle 14 1 18


Barclays Premier League race for the Golden Boot Carlos Tevez (Man City) 9
Andy Carroll (Newcastle) 8
Johan Elmander (Bolton) 8
Florent Malouda 7
Tim Cahill (Everton) 7
Kevin Nolan (Newcastle) 7

Barclays Premier League leading assists
Nani (Man Utd) 9
Chris Brunt (West Brom) 7
Didier Drogba 6
Peter Crouch (Tottenham) 6
Andrey Arshavin (Arsenal) 6
Matthew Etherington (Stoke) 6

Barclays Premier League race for the Golden Glove
(clean sheets)
Petr Cech 8
Joe Hart (Man City) 7
Ben Foster (Birmingham) 6
Edwin van der Sar (Man Utd) 6
Simon Mignolet (Sunderland) 5
Pepe Reina (Liverpool) 5

TACTICAL BRIEFChelsea were the only English club to have a nominee in each team category of the Fifa/Fifpro World XI for this year: goalkeeper Petr Cech, defenders John Terry and Ashley Cole, midfielders Michael Essien and Frank Lampard, and forward Didier Drogba. Unfortunately we could again be without several of those big hitters this weekend through suspension for Essien (the last of three) and injury to others.
Nicolas Anelka is five goals away from joining Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink and Frank Lampard in the top ten of all-time Premier League goalscorers. He will depose Dwight Yorke - formerly of Toon's big rivals Sunderland.
It will be interesting to see how Carlo Ancelotti sets his team up for this tricky away trip. Having seen his youngsters do well against Žilina and his available personnel click with two defensive midfielders deployed in that game and also at Birmingham, he may be inclined to start with that system against Newcastle's 4-4-1-1.
The hosts have had a strange season, often performing better against the more difficult sides, and away from St James' Park. They beat arch rivals Sunderland 5-1 at home but have lost there to the likes of Blackpool, Stoke and Blackburn.
Chris Hughton's team did beat a much-changed, ten-man Chelsea team 4-3 in the League Cup at Stamford Bridge despite resting a few players themselves.
Yet they were spanked 5-1 by Bolton at the Reebok last weekend, with the score already 4-1 before Fabricio Coloccini was ordered off the field.
An elbow, a head-butt and a punch may sound like the average ladies' night out on the infamous Bigg Market, but such incidents on the playing field have rendered three of Toon's regulars unavailable.
They are missing both centre-backs, Coloccini and Michael Williamson, for different incidents involving the same player, Bolton's Johan Elmander. The pair had been ever-present starters in the league so far.
The Magpies are fortunate they have cover in that area. The absences open up the prospect of another outing for Sol Campbell against Chelsea, possibly with Steven Taylor returning to the first team after a long spell recovering from injury.
Chelsea v Newcastle

Campbell played in the Magpies' 4-3 League Cup win at Stamford Bridge and came on as a sub at Bolton, while Taylor last figured in January. They have briefly played together for Newcastle's Reserves.
Influential midfielder Joey Barton is also suspended for the last of his three-match ban for clobbering Morten Gamst Pedersen.
Chris Hughton likes to have two holding midfielders and two wide men. He puts either Shola Ameobi or Nile Ranger in alongside impressive top scorer Andy Carroll, or asks Kevin Nolan to tuck in just behind him.
Goalie Tim Krul's run in the side started just before our League Cup meeting following Steve Harper's shoulder injury. He has yet to be beaten from outside the box this season in the league.

WE HAVE HISTORYChelsea are looking to extend our unbeaten league run against Newcastle to seven games since the 1-0 defeat at St James' Park the end of our Premier League winning 2005/06 season. That was Newcastle's only win in our last 10 league meetings.
After the Blues visited St James' Park back on Saturday 25 March 1961 there was only one name on everyone's lips, and it wasn't that of the Geordies' Wales international goalie, Dave Hollins.
The older brother of future Chelsea star John, Hollins had to retrieve the ball from his net six times that afternoon, and on four occasions Jimmy Greaves (pictured below), playing his 150th league game, was the reason.
Greaves

It was an occasion for records. This was the first time in our top-flight history that the Stamford Bridge club had hit six away from home, and Greaves's contribution made it 35 for the season personally, exceeding his own previous club record by three goals. His total league goals tally had also reached 118.
Under other circumstances Ron Tindall's brace would have been celebrated. Duncan Neale netted late-on for the hosts to complete a 6-1 scoreline.
Oddly, it had been a very even first-half, with Newcastle denied a possible penalty when Peter Sillett crunched Ivor Allchurch in the box. Then, 'with masterly opportunism', as Len Shackleton reported, Greaves 'cracked in four perfect goals' and Chelsea 'skated home'.
Newcastle were relegated a month later.

Our away Premier League record at St James' Park is:
1993/94 Drew 0-0
1994/95 Newcastle won 4-2
1995/96 Newcastle won 2-0
1996/97 Newcastle won 3-1
1997/98 Newcastle won 3-1
1998/99 Chelsea won 1-0
1999/00 Chelsea won 1-0
2000/01 Drew 0-0
2001/02 Chelsea won 2-1
2002/03 Newcastle won 2-1
2003/04 Newcastle won 2-1
2004/05 Drew 1-1
2005/06 Newcastle won 1-0
2006/07 Drew 0-0
2007/08 Chelsea won 2-0
2008/09 Chelsea won 2-0

CHELSEA STATSThe defeat at St Andrew's on Saturday was the second time this season we have lost back to back games following Newcastle (League Cup) and Man City in September and was the first time we had lost consecutive league games in 165 matches.
Three league defeats in four is our worst run for over four years when we lost against Blackburn and Newcastle at the end of 2005/06 when we had already secured the Premier League title and beat Man City on the opening day of the following season and then lost three days later at Middlesbrough.
It is 421 games and 11 years since Chelsea last lost three successive Premier League matches (Liverpool away 0-1, Arsenal home 2-3 and Derby away 1-3) in October 1999.
Having failed to score once in the Premier League last season (at Birmingham), we have failed to notch a goal in five of our last nine games.
Michael Essien's header against Fulham is our only goal in over six hours of Barclays Premier League football.
Chelsea have scored the most goals (28) with Man Utd and Arsenal and conceded the fewest (nine) in the Premier League this term.
The Blues have won 10 points out of a possible 21 on our travels with victories at Wigan, West Ham and Blackburn, a draw at Aston Villa and defeats to Man City, Liverpool and Birmingham.
Chelsea have gone 22 games since a score draw, the longest run in the Premier League.
Last six results
Nov 3 Spartak Moscow (Champions League h) W 4-1
Nov 7 Liverpool (a) L 0-2
Nov 10 Fulham (h) W 1-0
Nov 14 Sunderland (h) L 0-3
Nov 20 Birmingham (a) L 0-1
Nov 23 MŠK Žilina (Champions League h) W 2-1

2010/11 Barclays Premier League scorers Malouda 7, Drogba 6 (1 pen), Kalou 5, Anelka 3, Essien 3, Alex 1, Ivanovic 1, Lampard 1, Benayoun 1. Total 28.

MILESTONES
Petr Cech is aiming for his 150th clean sheet in his 282nd game.
John Mikel Obi could make his 100th Premier League start as well as his 150th start in all competitions.
Florent Malouda should rack up his 100th Premier League appearance.
Paulo Ferreira could make his 100th Premier League start.
Salomon Kalou needs a brace to reach 50 goals for Chelsea.

NEWCASTLE STATS
Formed 1881
Major trophies4 League championships, last in 1927
6 FA Cups, last in 1955
1 Inter Cities Fairs Cup in 1969
1 FA Charity Shield in 1909
Newcastle have been Premier League runners-up twice in 1995/96 and 1996/97. Their last major piece of silverware was the Inter Cities Fairs Cup in 1969 when they beat Hungarian side Ujpest Dozsa 6-2 over two legs.
Only Chelsea, Man Utd and Arsenal (with 17) have scored more league goals at home than Newcastle's 15.
Newcastle have won more points away from home than at St James' Park this season. Only West Ham have won fewer at home.
This term they have won eight points out of a possible 21 at St James' Park with wins against Aston Villa and Sunderland, draws with Wigan and Fulham and defeats to Blackpool, Stoke and Blackburn.
United have won three away games at Everton, West Ham and Arsenal.

Manager
Chris Hughton
Days in charge: 544
Played 68
Won 39
Drawn 16
Lost 13

TOON IN THE PREM

Pts Pos
1993/94 77 3rd
1994/95 72 6th
1995/96 78 2nd
1996/97 68 2nd
1997/98 44 13th
1998/99 46 13th
1999/00 52 11th
2000/01 51 11th
2001/02 71 4th
2002/03 69 3rd
2003/04 56 5th
2004/05 44 14th
2005/06 58 7th
2006/07 43 13th
2007/08 43 12th
2008/09 34 18th

Surfing term

Belly: a convex planing surface

Flat: a flat planing surface

Concave: a concave planing surface

"V": a faceted planing surface

Channel / Hull: a series of flat/concave planes

Tri Plane Hull: a double concave planing surface

Hydro Hull: a double concave planing surface with increased "V" and a dual edged rail

Note: Most boards are made with a combination of bottom contours.

Belly - A convex planing surface is the most inefficient. The convex curve plows through the water and parts it, allowing it to escape off the rail. Belly is usually used as an aid to control. It will give a smoother ride in choppy conditions because rather than slapping against the water it will part it. In big or fast surf belly allows the surfboard to roll or lean from rail to rail easier, which is essential for control at high speeds.

Flat - Flat bottoms plane up on top of the water making them efficient and responsive. They are quick and loose in small or mushy surf. Once higher speeds are reached, flat bottoms are a bit more difficult to initiate turns with, and tend to skitter or slide when turned hard.

Concave - The purpose of a concave bottom is to contain water flow down the length of the board. The water under the wide point is necked down and squeezed out in the tail area, which brings the venturi principle into play resulting in more lift. The addition of concaves can either remove or add rocker depending on their placement. Rocker must be adjusted accordingly so that desired performance characteristics are maintained. Concaves are a potent design feature and can cause a board to track and feel stiff to delicate adjustment in line if utilized improperly.

"V" - Angled "V" on the bottom works very much like belly, but is a flat plane rather than a convex curve. Usually belly is found on the forward 1/3 of the board and "V" is found on the rear 2/3. "V" is essential to loosen up the tail area at high speeds. "V" increases the rocker at the rail line, which makes the board turn more easily. Many surfers experience a feeling of added projection out of turns on boards with pronounced "V", which may be attributed to the "V" allowing them to turn harder, with the flat planes maintaining an efficient planing surface. Increased "V" makes a board easier to lean.

Channel / Hull Bottom - The channel bottom consists of a series of flat planes (usually 2-8 in number) that are angled in a concave configuration. The main advantage to this design is that it directs waterflow down the length of the channel. Since the channels are parallel, the water isn't being compressed as it is in the full concave. The channel bottom design provides the advantages of a full concave without the disadvantages of being stiff or tracking. The concave configurations of these planes contain and direct water down their length when a turn is made instead of letting water escape off the rail. More of the energy put into the turn is utilized and converted to forward thrust. As a rule, longer and deeper channels give maximum effect while short and shallow channels are more subtle.

Special attention should be paid to the corners of the channels to make sure they are benefiting from a full strength glass job.

Tri Plane Hull - The tri plane hull was developed by Al Merrick and consists of a shallow concave on each side of the stringer that extends from the center of the board to the fin(s). Added lift is created as water passes diagonally across this contour, similar in action to water rushing over a stone in a stream. The effect of the tri plane hull is similar to channels but more subtle. Channels have more directional sense, producing more drive and projection out of turns, but the tri plane hull is quicker in leaning edge to edge.

Hydro Hull - The hydro hull adds a double-edged rail and subtle double concaves to a bottom with increased "V". The beveled rail facilitates release yet maintains a nose to tail edge for bite and projection. The forward edge of the rail is the widest point of the hydro rail. This is also where the subtle double concaves start. The double concaves create lift (improving planing efficiency) and remove rocker curve, which creates a straighter, faster rocker. The improved planing efficiency of this design allows narrower template dimensions to be utilized. Decreased width, coupled with increased "V", improves quick response in rail-to-rail transitions.

Become Good at Math

S
top believing that you can't do math. Everyone has the capability to do math. Math is just as important as literacy, and just like with learning how to read, learning how to excel in math takes Time And Patience. Start With MEMORIZATION. Although The School System Seems To Discourage Memorization As a way to learn spelling and math, it can work. Learn the multiplication tables through 10. Learning the tables at least through 10 means you can FIGURE OUT things longhand if you need to.

P
ractice, practice, practice. Practice is a central part of learning math, as well as just about anything else in life. Most children don't know how to read after picking up just one book, just as most people can't FIGURE OUT HOW TO DO MATH problems just by looking at one equation. And it's much easier to memorize formulas if you're constantly using them. PRACTICE. Much like we didn't all drive a car perfectly the first time we tried, math also takes practice.

At the grocery store, work on estimating what the before-tax cost of your purchase will be, or calculate the amount you are saving via coupons. It is not NECESSARY TO BE EXACT, just to work on math. As your math skills IMPROVE, you will get closer to the actual price.
Get rid of the digital products when possible. Digital clocks make it more difficult to teach children to read an old-style clock. Get A WIND-UP CLOCK. Rather than using a calculator, use a pencil and paper to practice basic math.
Pay for everything for one week, or even ONE DAY, IN CASH. WITH THE constant use of credit cards and debit cards, people can;'t even make change properly anymore without a computer or cash register to tell them what the change is. Pay some bills with cash, and if you are due to receive change, try to figure out beforehand how much you should get back.
PRACTICE ON MATH WORKSHEETS. Make random math problems for yourself on a sheet of paper and do the math without using a calculator. Then, use the calculator to check your work. Getting to be good at math is mostly just a matter of memorization and practice.
Be humble. The best learners are people who are filled with awe and love for their Creator as they gaze on the vast intellectual landscape which He has provided them to explore. They Know Their Teachers Are Only guides along the way, having knowledge which required a lot of work to aquire, but who are still exploring that landscape as well. They know that past experiences may not necessarily point the direction for current ones, and they readily shed old perspectives when new ones are REQUIRED. AND, THEY ARE TOO happy about the delights of the journey to demand quick transport from one destination to another.

How to Be a Good Student


Good Students - Made or Born?

A good student is made, not born. We learned to walk and talk, and then most of us learned to sit down and shut up and listen. Some of us learned to listen without interupting.

How does one become a good student at college or university? With a sports coach, you know that the coach is trying to help you improve yourself. With his outside eye, and his experience of other athletes, he will guide you towards general fitness and your chosen sport. When he gets you out of bed at 4am after a heavy night drinking, he is not being sadistic. First, you should be up and running at 4am every morning. If you cannot breeze a 4am 10-mile run after a night in the bar, he is helping you to recognise there are choices in life and you made the wrong one. As you were stupid enough to make the wrong choice you need to feel the pain and discomfort to underline to yourself
(1)  you are an athlete and
(2)  athletes cannot drink like that
(3)  you still have to run the 10 miles at 4am come rain, come sun, or come deathly hangover
How to Be a Good Student
Use your reliable transportation to come to class on time. Students who walk in late are not only disrupting the teacher, they may be missing valuable information or the best seat in the classroom. Arriving a few minutes early is a lot different than arriving a few minutes late.
Sit in the front row. Not only will you be able to see and hear the teacher better, you will also be far away from mooching students who tend to sit in the back.
Be sure that you get a syllabus and then study it carefully. If your teacher goes through it during class, be sure to write down any additional information he or she may provide. Put your syllabus in a safe place and DO NOT LOSE IT. Refer to it throughout the semester whenever you have a question about due dates or class policies. This will save your teacher a lot of time and trouble.
Write down all pertinent class information such as: meeting day and time, room number, professor's name, and class section number and code (such as PHI 10, 28779) This will prevent you from getting lost on campus the first few days and will come in great handy if you need to add/drop the class.
Learn your professor/ teacher's name and what he or she likes to be called. "Mr." "Ms." "Instructor" or "Dr." may be appropriate. Unless your teacher requests otherwise, use his or her last name to convey the proper respect.
Come to class ready to learn. TURN OFF YOUR CELLPHONE, PAGER, OR OTHER ELECTRONIC DEVICE. Do not leave your cell phone on vibrate; it is still a disruption to the class. Be sure that you have gone to the bathroom, gotten something to eat, and have all your necessary books, pens, and paper. You should not be getting up and leaving in the middle of class on a regular basis, even just to make a phone call. Save those types of behaviors for an emergency.
Be prepared by taking good notes. What if you never taken notes before and you're not sure how? The only answer is to practice. Some guidance classes will teach you how to write notes if you need help, but mostly, learning how to listen for and write down important information comes from the experience of actually doing it. You should be taking notes every time your teacher lectures and then storing them in a safe place. Refer to your notes just after leaving class; this way your mind will still be fresh.
Get the phone numbers of at least two other class members. That way, if you miss a class, you can call to find out what you missed. Remember, it is your responsibility to know the information that your teacher presents and that is covered in the book. Don't expect a teacher to regive a lecture that they already gave in class. If you haven't spoken to anyone in the class, simply approach them and ask, "Would you like to exchange phone numbers? I always like to have someone's number in case I miss anything." Most students are happy to have a buddy they can rely on. Its a win-win situation.
Start working on an assignment as soon as possible. Time goes by faster than you expect it to, and we can't always foresee incidents that will get in the way of our homework. Also, if you plan to get an A on your assignment, you will probably need to spend hours working on it. A lot of people aren't willing to do the work required to get an A. Others are. If you have any questions about how to do the assignment or when to turn it in, consult your syllabus and then your teacher.
Turn in all assignments! (extra credit is only optional if you are earning a good grade.) This would seem like a no-brainer, but many students fail to do this. Also, be very familiar with assignment make-up policies. If you have a special situation, talk to your teacher.
If you are assigned to do group work, whether its discussion or turning in a presentation, be a good group member. That means that in a group, you are working just as hard as if you were on your own. Bring your ideas and your feedback to the table. Be serious about the assignment. Taking the attitude of, "I'm so bad at this stuff; you guys can handle it. Your ideas are way better than mine," is not being modest; it's being lazy. In the case of discussion, you are depriving your classmates of the feedback they should have received from you. And in the case of an assignment, you are making your group members do all the work! Don't cop out. In contrast, dominating a group and not allowing everyone to contribute ideas is just as bad. Even if you don't like someone else's ideas, you may need to compromise and go along with it, because group work is supposed to be a group effort.
Learn from your mistakes. That means if your teacher writes, "Use better grammar" than you should study grammar. If your teacher says, "Excellent! But I feel your conclusion is a little weak" than study how to write a conclusion. If you completely bomb a test, that should be a wake-up call to you. If you procrastinate so long that you are not ready with your project, and it turns into a humiliating experience, you need to ask yourself, "What went wrong? Why did I fail, and how could I do it better next time?" Go to your teacher and ask for feedback if you need more clarification.
Have a good attitude. People who show up to a class and complain all the time, talking on their cell phone and behind the teacher's back, is really only displaying their immaturity. Leave your personal problems at home, show up with a smile, and try to imagine why you might need to know this information, if it doesn't seem obvious.
1 help seeking behavior
! willingness to seek help
! ability to talk to advisors, TA’s, etc.
! knowledge of campus resources
! readiness to accept assistance
2self-discipline
! good time management
! good study skills
! knowing how to say “no”
! being proactive not reactive
! avoiding procrastination
3 recognition that UGA is highly competitive
! good math skills
! good computer skills
! good writing skills
! realistic expectations
! ability to work in groups
4positive attitude
! motivated to succeed
! becoming part of a community
! setting short- and long-term goals
5adapting to learning environments
! how to study for different subjects
! how to succeed in large classes
! how to take exams
! broadening cultural perspectives
! getting involved with campus issues
Hihi..This post actually dedicated to my lovely partner..

Thursday, November 25, 2010

Hull types (ship & boat) part 1

for this part 1 i included with picture and more information about hull types. All the information and picture is gathered from internet sources and naval architecture book. I hope with this data all my member, friend can learn more and understand basic of the hull types. thank and i would love to be critic/ shared knowledge to improve my understanding..see ya!

Chine Hulls


These are hulls made up of flat panels (commonly made of plywood, or more traditionally with planking) which meet at a sharp angle known as the chine. Chined hulls range from simple flat-bottomed boats where the side and bottom are two distinct pieces (such as banks dories, sharpies and skiffs) to multichine boats. Multichine hulls allow a round hull shape to be approximated.

A chined hull consists of straight plates, which are set at an angle to each other. The chined hull is the most simple hull shape because it works with only straight planks. These boards are often bent lengthwise. Most home-made constructed boats are chined hull boats. A benefit of this type of boating activity is the low production cost and the (usually) fairly flat bottom, making the boat faster at planning. Chined hulls can also make use of a sword or attached keel.
            chine hull                 
chine hull  
  chine hull  

Displacement Hulls

Boats with displacement hulls move through the water by pushing the water aside and are designed to cut through the water with very little propulsion.
  • If you lower a boat into the water, some of the water moves out of the way to adjust for the boat. If you could weigh that displaced water, you would find it equals the weight of the boat. That weight is the boat's displacement.
  • Boats with displacement hulls are limited to slower speeds.
  • A round-bottomed hull shape acts as a displacement hull. Most large cruisers and most sailboats have displacement hulls, allowing them to travel more smoothly through the water.
 displacement hull  
 displacement hull  

Flatt Bottom Hulls

Advantage: This planing hull has a shallow draft, which is good for fishing in small lakes and rivers.
Disadvantage:  Rides roughly in choppy waters.
 flat bottom hull  
                flat bottom hull                   
 
flat bottom hull  plan

HULL FORM:
Flat bottom, Flared Sides, Double-ended

The Chama Jon Boat Flat bottom, square bow
 
example of flat bottom hull


Round Bilge Hulls

 Advantage: This typical displacement hull moves easily through the water even at slow speeds.
Disadvantage:  Has a tendency to roll unless it has a deep keel or stabilizers.


Generally for this types of hulls these vessels are rounded and don't usually have any chines or corners.
They can be round-bilged, soft-chined or molded. Examples are the s-bottom hull, semi-round bilge and round bilge.

 round bilge hull    

 round bilge hull   


    round bilge hull      
                     
  round bilge hull

V Bottom Hulls


 Advantage: This planing hull gives a smoother ride than a flat bottom hull in rough water.
Disadvantage: Takes more power to move at the same speed as flat bottom hulls. May roll or bank in sharp turns.

The "V"-bottom boat is probably the most common hull design. Most manufacturers of boats built today use modifications of this design. This design offers a good ride in rough water as the pointed bow slices forward and the "V"-shaped bottom softens the up-and-down movement of the boat. The degree of the angle of the "V" is called "deadrise." As the "V" shape extends to the back of the boat, it usually flattens out until it all but disappears at the transom. Some "V"-bottom boats have a flat surface at the very bottom called a "pad." This pad allows a little more planing surface and at the sacrifice of a little softness in the ride, but this addition increases top speed.
v bottom hull
             v bottom hull           

   v bottom hull with strakes

v bottom hull with super high speed performance

v bottom hull
 

Planning Hulls

Boats with planing hulls are designed to rise up and glide on top of the water when enough power is supplied. These boats may operate like displacement hulls when at rest or at slow speeds but climb towards the surface of the water as they move faster.

How Planing Hulls Operate

Planing hull performing like a displacement hull Displacement Mode—A planing hull, when operated at very slow speeds, will cut through the water like a displacement hull.
Planing hull in plowing mode Plowing Mode—As speed increases, a planing hull will have a raised bow, reducing the operator's vision and throwing a very large wake. Avoid maintaining a speed that puts your boat in plowing mode.
Planing hull in planing mode Planing Mode—Your boat is in planing mode when enough power is applied so that the hull glides on top of the water. Different boats reach planing mode at different speeds.

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

"Samuel Plimsoll"

"Samuel Plimsoll"
1824 ~ 1898
During the 19th century, British trade with the rest of the world was growing rapidly. The large number of ships being wrecked each year caused greater and greater concern. For example, in the year 1873-4, 411 ships sank around the British coast, with the loss of 506 lives. Overloading and poor maintenance made some ships so dangerous that they became known as 'coffin ships'. One of the first attempts to force ships to carry loading marks for safety was made in 1835 by Lloyd's Register, a large company that insured ships. They introduced rules about loading, but these only applied to those ships registered with the Lloyd's company itself. Other ship-owners could still do as they liked when they loaded their ships. If they chose to disregard safety, no one would stop them.

Seamen worried about the dangerous condition of ships, and many refused to go to sea. In 1855, a group of seafarers calling themselves 'The seamen of Great Britain' wrote to Victoria the then Queen, complaining that courts had found them guilty of desertion when they complained about going to sea in dangerous ships. Around the same time, an inspector of prisons reported that nine out of twelve prisoners in the jails of south-west England were seamen, imprisoned for twelve weeks for refusing to sail in ships they considered to be un-seaworthy, or without enough crew. In one case in 1866, the whole crew was jailed, when they refused to set sail on an old ship.
Different attempts, like that of Lloyd's Register, were made over the years to ensure that only safe amounts of cargo were loaded, but there was still no compulsory system to force ship owners to act to protect their ships. In 1870, Samuel Plimsoll MP, who was a coal merchant, became interested in the subject. He began to write a book about the disastrous effects of overloading ships. When he began to investigate, Plimsoll found the problem was even worse than he had expected. He began to campaign in parliament with the aim of improving safety at sea. Many ordinary people became very interested in his book and his campaign. In 1872, a Royal Commission on Un-seaworthy Ships was set up to look at evidence and recommend changes. Plimsoll was defeted several times in parliament, but he continued in his fight until load lines became compulsory. He became so famous that several popular songs were written about him.

The Merchant Shipping Act of 1876 made load lines compulsory, but the position of the line was not fixed by law until 1894. In 1906, foreign ships were also required to carry a load line if they visited British ports. Since then, the line has been known in the U.K. as the Plimsoll Line. To this day, it still carries the name of the MP who fought such a long struggle in parliament to win better safety conditions for ships crews. Together with other important changes made to ships in the Victorian period, load lines helped to preserve the lives of ships crews and passengers.

The Plimsoll Line was painted on the side of merchant ships. When a ship was loaded, the water level was not to go above the line. However, the water could reach different parts of the line (see drawing) as its temperature and saltiness varied with season and location. The basic symbol, of a circle with a horizontal line passing through its centre, is now recognised worldwide.   Samuel Plimsoll"